Additional Information Abstract Because of its claims to general knowledge, and perhaps even more because of its increasing prominence in the educational curriculum, world history has recently become a principal focus of constituencies seeking to mobilize the past in support of particular political or ideological agendas. In extreme cases these constituencies have made world history little more than a vehicle of propaganda for their ideological preferences. This article recognizes that historical scholarship always reflects some set of political or ideological influences and thus takes the form of situated knowledge rather than a final or definitive assessment of the past.
Social Education 57 3, pp. Breitborde A year ago I received two items in the mail on the same day, both of which invoked the anniversary of Columbus's arrival in the West five hundred years ago.
The first was a brochure from the university where I had received my Ph. Its cover was a letter from the director of the University Alumni Association that read, in part, Dear Alumni and Friends, Very soon the eyes of the world will focus on one of the most significant milestones in history, the th anniversary of the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus I am pleased to announce that the University Alumni Association has chosen to mark this particularly American anniversary with one of its most beautiful products ever-the Official University World Globe.
The page was prefaced with the following statement: Far from being the "savages" Christopher Columbus described in his log, native peoples of the Americas were advanced in many ways-and far more civilized than their "discoverers.
The list of the white man's "gifts" to the Indians was a summary of "cruelty, betrayals and relentless attempts to take their lands and destroy their cultures. On the island of Haiti, all Indians over 14 years of age were required to bring in a certain quota of gold every three months-and those hapless ones who failed had their hands cut off.
In an article in the New York Times, a reporter took stock of the breadth of response to Columbus Day The National Council of Churches has voted to condemn Columbus' arrival as an "invasion" and plan[s] to hold counter-demonstrations to the Catholic Church's plans for a celebration of years of Christianity Christopher Columbus "symbolizes everything that is against basic American values," said Jack Weatherford, a professor of anthropology at Macalester College Kirkpatrick Sales's The Conquest of Paradise Lynne Cheney, the chair of the National Endowment for the Humanities, would not fund a documentary, Clash of Visions, because it "was not balanced, and Timothy Dalton, the latest film James Bond, will also star in a Mario Puzo feature film about Columbus to be directed by the person best known for his work on Rambo II.
Stanley4 Conflicting Approaches and Multiculturalism As educators, we could not simply be amused by this because we had to make decisions about our classrooms.
Would we allow Columbus Day to pass quietly? If not, how did we mark the day, given the range of conflicting approaches that were so effectively offered to U. Furthermore, as we formulated our plans our thinking could not help but focus on the continuing debate in our elementary and secondary schools, in our school board meetings, on our campuses, in the media, and in our churches and synagogues on multiculturalism-a term so broad as to defy simple and concise definition.
Some senses of multiculturalism fueled, and were fueled by, continuing debate about the anniversary of Columbus's arrival in the Americas. How do we as a society, as local communities, as educators in our classrooms evaluate the competing and often contradictory accounts of the "encounter"?
How do we understand, much less resolve, the divergent perspectives of various groups within U. As educators, we ask: Given the potential turmoil created by the passion with which various groups approached the Quincentenary, what could we do in our classrooms-how do we conduct our classrooms-as we explored the "facts" of this event and assessed their meaning for us and our students today?
In one way, these issues were not as complicated as some other multicultural debates.
In this case, for example, there is little argument about the "facts. The spread of disease, the introduction of new plants and animals, transformations of beliefs, the incorporation of indigenous North American and South American polities as the periphery of an expanding European-based economic system, and a host of other facts have secured a place in the public consciousness that could not have been imagined a century ago; these facts could not be known except through a multicultural perspective.
That is, they emerged only as a result of deliberate investigation of the encounter from multiple perspectives-from the points of view of the various parties involved. Because scholars have considered seriously the differences in values, beliefs, practices, and perceptions of various communities of Europeans and Native Americans, our awareness of what transpired five hundred years ago is enriched.
Thus, scholars have constructed what might be termed a multicultural view of the encounter.
To the extent that what we teach and what our students learn is consistent with this complex, multicultural view, we need not fear that our classes will "sacrifice accuracy for diversity," as Albert Shanker has recently warned us.
Shanker has alerted us to the danger of multicultural curricula that equate "'noncanonical knowledge and techniques'" and "'nondominant knowledge sources'" with "ideas and theories that no reputable scholar accepts" Shanker9.
But the consideration of Columbus from a multicultural perspective, one that incorporated the perspectives and positions of several cultural groups, could only result in an accurate picture of events. Here, then, accurate knowledge was not threatened by multiculturalism but, rather, was made possible only as a result of a multicultural view.Essay about education ielts testing dubai good opinion essay zasady pisania, dissertation editing help forum essay art in society nigerian the child labour essay storyboarding essay talking about my family narrative essay about psychology health make a friend essay argument, essay giving a present manipur sample essay of opinion english.
the albert shanker college scholarship fund has our permission to verify the information reported and communicate with the applicant’s parent or guardian as necessary in the consideration of this application. The United States is known to be the land of opportunity and upholds the ideals of the “American Dream.” This “dream” includes providing equal opportunities for residents of the nation to journey into a life of success and prosperity.
The New York City teachers' strike of also signaled the decline of black-Jewish relations: the Jewish president of the United Federation of Teachers, Albert Shanker, made statements that were seen by some as straining black-Jewish relations by accusing black teachers of antisemitism.
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