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Succession[ edit ] they were the first to reach geprgl. She became Queen of Castile in Her niece, Joanna of Castileattempted to gain the throne by bringing in the foreign help of Afonso V of Portugalleading to the War of Castilian Succession.
More recently, some speculate that Joanna was the legitimate successor, though Isabella was able to portray herself as such. Ferdinand became the King of Aragon in Though their marriage united the two kingdoms, leading to the beginnings of modern Spain, they ruled independently and their kingdoms retained their own regional laws and governments for the next few centuries.
Domestic policy[ edit ] Ferdinand and Isabella with their subjects The Catholic Monarchs set out to restore royal authority in Spain. To accomplish their goal, they first created a group named the Holy Brotherhood.
These men were Columbus letter to isabella and fernidand as a judicial police force for Castile, as well as to attempt to keep Castilian nobles in check.
To establish a more uniform judicial systemthe Catholic Monarchs created the Royal Counciland appointed magistrates judges to run the towns and cities. This establishment of royal authority is known as the Pacification of Castileand can be seen as one of the crucial steps toward the creation of one of Europe's first strong nation-states.
Isabella also sought various ways to diminish the influence of the Cortes Generales in Castile, though Ferdinand was too thoroughly Catalan to do anything of the sort with the equivalent systems in the Crown of Aragon.
Further, the monarchs continued ruling through a form of medieval contractualism, which made their rule pre-modern in a few ways. One of those is that they traveled from town to town throughout the kingdom in order to promote loyalty, rather than possessing any single administrative center.
Another is that each community and region was connected to them via loyalty to the crown, rather than bureaucratic ties. The Kings had a goal of completing the Christian reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula and to conquer the Muslim kingdom of Granada. The beginnings of a series of campaigns known as the Granada War began with the attack of Alhama de Granada.
The city fell to Andalusian forces in After 10 years of many battles the Granada War ended in when the Emir Boabdil surrendered the keys of the Alhambra Palace in Granada to the Castilian soldiers. Expulsion of non-Christians and Spanish Inquisition[ edit ] Main articles: The Catholic Monarchs decided to introduce the Inquisition to Castile, and requested the Pope's assent.
The bull gave the monarchs exclusive authority to name the inquisitors. The last trial for crypto-Judaism was held in In Ferdinand and Isabella ordered segregation of communities to create closed quarters which eventually became what were later called " ghettos ".
This segregation, common at the time, also furthered economic pressures upon the Jews and other non-Christians by increasing taxes and social restrictions. Finally, inwith the Alhambra Decree Jews in Spain were given four months by the monarchs to either convert to Catholicism or leave Spain.
Later inFerdinand issued a letter addressed to the Jews who had left Castile and Aragon, to invite them back to Spain if and only if they had become Christians.Coat of arms of Isabella I of Castile depicted in the manuscript from Breviary of Isabella the Catholic.
She appears in the 'Columbus soliciting aid of Isabella', 5-cent issue, and on the Spanish court scene replicated on the cent Columbian, and on the $4 issue, in full portrait, side by side with Columbus.
Columbus' letter to. Columbus, Ferdinand, and Isabella Although Columbus was a successful merchant and sailing master in Portugal, he seems to have had a personal drive for fame and fortune, and most importantly, a fervent belief in his scheme to reach rich trading grounds in China by sailing west over the "Ocean Sea".
On the 14th of March, , Christopher Columbus composed a letter to Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon in regards to his first voyage. In his letter, Columbus claims to have discovered and taken possession of a series of Islands, located on the Indian Ocean, thirty-three days .
Ferdinand II, byname Ferdinand the Catholic, Spanish Fernando el Católico, (born March 10, , Sos, Aragon—died Jan. 23, , Madrigalejo, Spain), king of Aragon and king of Castile (as Ferdinand V) from , joint sovereign with Queen Isabella I.
The Letter of Columbus to Ferdinand and Isabel The following excerpt from the letter of Christopher Columbus to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel was undoubtedly intended to publicize the successes of the first voyage.
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