A Brief History A central function of the U. A nation is a sovereign country, and as such, possesses the highest authority over its territories. All sovereign states are theoretically equal.
Mark Twain visited India in  and described it in his travelogue Following the Equator with both revulsion and attraction before concluding that India was the only foreign land he dreamed about or longed to see again.
In the s and early s the United States gave very strong support to the Indian independence movement in defiance of the British Empire.
Tens of thousands of American servicemen arrived, bringing all sorts of advanced technology, and money; they left in Serious tension erupted over American demands, led by President Franklin D.
Rooseveltthat India be given independence, a proposition Prime Minister Winston Churchill vehemently rejected. For years Roosevelt had encouraged Britain's disengagement from India.
The American position was based on principled opposition to colonialism, practical concern for the outcome of the war, and the expectation of a large American role in a post-colonial era. However, in when the Indian National Congress launched a Quit India movement, the British authorities immediately arrested tens of thousands of activists.
Meanwhile, India became the main American staging base for aid to China. Churchill threatened to resign if Roosevelt pushed too hard, so Roosevelt backed down. America under the Truman administration leaned towards favouring India in the late s as a consequence of most U.
American officials perceived India's policy of non-alignment negatively. Grady told then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru that the United States did not consider neutrality to be an acceptable position. Grady told the State Department in December that he had informed Nehru "that this is a question that cannot be straddled and that India should get on the democratic side immediately.
His tour of the US was "an undiplomatic disaster" that left bad feelings on both sides. India tried to act as a broker to help end that war, and served as a conduit for diplomatic messages between the US and China.
Meanwhile, poor harvests forced India to ask for American aid for its food security, which was given starting in The Soviet Union provided about half as much in monetary terms, however made much larger contributions in kind, taking the form of infrastructural aid, soft loans, technical knowledge transfer, economic planning and skills involved in the areas of steel millsmachine buildinghydro-electric power and other heavy industries especially nuclear energy and space research.
Eisenhower at Parliament House, before the President's address to a joint session of Parliament, InDwight D. Eisenhower was the first US President to visit India to strengthen the staggering ties between the two nations.
He was so supportive that the New York Times remarked, "It did not seem to matter much whether Nehru had actually requested or been given a guarantee that the US would help India to meet further Chinese Communist aggression.
What mattered was the obvious strengthening of Indian—American friendship to a point where no such guarantee was necessary.
Kennedy, Vice-President Lyndon B. Kennedy 's Presidency —63India was considered a strategic partner and counterweight to the rise of Communist China. Kennedy said, Chinese Communists have been moving ahead the last 10 years. India has been making some progress, but if India does not succeed with her million people, if she can't make freedom work, then people around the world are going to determine, particularly in the underdeveloped world, that the only way they can develop their resources is through the Communist system.
The Kennedy administration openly supported India during the Sino-Indian war and considered the Chinese action as "blatant Chinese Communist aggression against India".
Defense Secretary Robert McNamara and General Maxwell Taylor advised the president to use nuclear weapons should the Americans intervene in such a situation. Kennedy insisted that Washington defend India as it would any ally, saying, "We should defend India, and therefore we will defend India.
As an economist, he also presided over the at the time largest US foreign aid program to any country. Following the assassination of Kennedy inIndo-US relations deteriorated gradually. While Kennedy's successor Lyndon Johnson sought to maintain relations with India to counter Communist China,  he also sought to strengthen ties with Pakistan with the hopes of easing tensions with China and weakening India's growing military buildup as well.
Richard Nixon shifted away from the neutral stance which his predecessors had taken towards Indo-Pakistani hostilities.
He established a very close relationship with Pakistan, aiding it militarily and economically, as India, now under the leadership of Indira Gandhiwas seen as leaning towards the Soviet Union.
He considered Pakistan as a very important ally to counter Soviet influence in the Indian subcontinent and establish ties with China, with whom Pakistan was very close.
Later inIndia conducted its first nuclear test, Smiling Buddhawhich was opposed by the US, however it also concluded that the test did not violate any agreement and proceeded with a June shipment of enriched uranium for the Tarapur reactor.
In the late s, with the anti-Soviet Janata Party leader Morarji Desai becoming the Prime Minister, India improved its relations with the US, now led by Jimmy Carterdespite the latter signing an order in barring nuclear material from being exported to India due to India's non-proliferation record.
The Reagan Administration provided limited assistance to India. India sounded out Washington on the purchase of a range of US defence technology, including F-5 aircraft, super computers, night vision goggles and radars. In Washington approved the supply of selected technology to India including gas turbines for naval frigates and engines for prototypes for India's light combat aircraft.
There were also unpublicised transfers of technology, including the engagement of a US company, Continental Electronics, to design and build a new VLF communications station at Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, which was commissioned in the late s. The United States strongly condemned this testing, promised sanctions, and voted in favour of a United Nations Security Council Resolution condemning the tests.
President Bill Clinton imposed economic sanctions on India, including cutting off all military and economic aid, freezing loans by American banks to state-owned Indian companies, prohibiting loans to the Indian government for all except food purchases, prohibiting American aerospace technology and uranium exports to India, and requiring the US to oppose all loan requests by India to international lending agencies.
Only Japan joined the US in imposing direct sanctions, while most other nations continued to trade with India.Current Issue: Fall | Archives World leaders have never really trusted each other—but the president's behavior undermines American foreign policy anyway.
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America was an example to the rest of society because we thought we were doing God's will to prosper. We were living in a New World Order in which free enterprise, democracy, and respect for human rights was our priority.