Its origin goes back to the time when Chinese civilization began to emerge. Daoist culture has long permeated the everyday life of ordinary Chinese people since it exerted great influences on social customs and national consciousness. Today, as a major religion in China, there are more than 1, temples and more than 25, Daoist priests of the Quanzhen and the Zhengyi Sect, though the number of ordinary believers is impossible to assess. The highest ideal of a Taoist is to acquire immortality.
Essays in the Philosophy of Religion Published: December 13, Philip L. Reviewed by Robert C. Roberts, Baylor University This book is a posthumous collection of some of the best papers of a distinguished, many-sided philosopher of religion, edited by one of his last students. The foreword is a humorous, piquant, and appreciative personal reminisence by Eleonore Stump.
The book has six sections: Quinn argues first that the conclusion does not follow, because it is possible either that God issues no commands or that the commands he issues are consistent with the conscience of a morally autonomous agent.
But, Rachels might say, surely God could command anything, and thus might command that the human agent relinquish his moral autonomy; this possibility shows that worship of God is in principle inconsistent with our moral autonomy.
Quinn responds that the theist can deny that God could command just anything, since the idea of God is that of a morally perfect being. But alternatively, the theist may think that if God commands a person to do what appears to him wrong, he may in fact be wrong about the apparent wrongness.
He briefly attempts to show that such conceptions would entail morally unpalatable assumptions. Quinn begins "Divine Commands: Quinn instead constructs a normative divine command theory according to which x is morally required for example because and only because God commands x he states this view more formally than I do here.
Most of the paper consists in answering possible objections to this theory. Quinn discusses the following objections.
If the theory is right, we have to know what God commands before we can tell right from wrong, which is absurd. The theory provides no decision procedure in ethics.
If moral principles are based on religious truths, then all the difficulties of achieving agreement in religion will likewise appear in ethics. But it seems that not all actions are morally permitted. It follows then that God exists and issues commands.
Since the principle is problematic, it raises no serious difficulty for the divine command theory. Some obligations, such as the prohibition of gratuitous torture, seem to be necessary truths.
Quinn suggests two possible responses. One is to bite the bullet and deny that any moral obligations are necessary truths. A way to make this scenario plausible is to suppose with Ockham that God can create all the essential features of an action, such as hating God or torturing innocents for pleasure, without causing it to be wicked.
The first argues that three considerations to which orthodox Christians adhere -- the concept of divine sovereignty, the Old Testament attestation of "the immoralities of the patriarchs," and the love command found in the Gospels -- cumulatively support a divine command theory of obligation.
The second part of the essay attempts "to show that theological voluntarism is superior to" Aristotelian virtue theory, "the rival contender that currently enjoys the greatest popularity among Christian philosophers" Quinn considers efforts by Tom Morris and Michael Loux to extend to necessary truths the sovereignty that many Christians believe God exercises over contingent existence.
Loux proposes "extravagantly" 59 that God creates all necessary truths by believing them in the strong sense that he believes the propositions and does not entertain their negation.
Thus we maintain a kind of theological voluntarism for moral truths, even necessary ones. Quinn points out that the claim may need to be restricted further to a particular kind of moral truth, namely truths about obligations.
Immoralities of the patriarchs. Quinn discusses various respected Church fathers who endorse this reading, thus holding that the bottom line on morality is obedience to the will of God.
Thomas Aquinas is particularly interesting, since he holds that God, being God, can change the moral status of an action that in the absence of his special command would count as murder, fornication, or theft.
For example, when God commanded the Israelites to "plunder the Egyptians," the action he was requiring of them was not theft, since the property of the Egyptians became, through the command, the property of the Israelites.T he subject of philosophy is very ancient.
The word means “the love, study or pursuit of wisdom, or of knowledge of things and their causes, whether theoretical or practical.” All we know of science or of religion comes from philosophy.
One of the twentieth century’s greatest philosophers presents the results of his lifetime study of man’s cultural achievements. An Essay on Man is an original synthesis of contemporary knowledge, a unique interpretation of the intellectual crisis of our time, and a brilliant vindication of man’s ability to resolve human problems by the courageous use of his mind.
Christian B. Miller's introduction gives the gist, and in some cases reviews the polemical background, of each of the papers. The book has six sections: religious ethics, religion and tragic dilemmas, religious epistemology, religion and political liberalism, topics in Christian philosophy, and religious diversity.
I believe in Spinoza's God who reveals Himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with fates and actions of human beings.
Arthur Schopenhauer () Certainly one of the greatest philosophers of the 19th century, Schopenhauer seems to have had more impact on literature (e.g. Thomas Mann) and on people in general than on academic philosophy. This important new book is a combined anthology and guide intended for use as a textbook in courses on philosophy of religion.
It aims to bring to the student the very best of cutting-edge work on important topics in the field.