Mostly a dark blue color some deeper blue glazing Condition: It has intricate molded and painted Egyptian features with distinct eyes, headband, grain sack on back, and hieroglyphs down the front.
They have not yet deciphered the Indus system of writing. Evidence comes largely from archaeological digs, although many sites remain unexplored, and floods probably washed away others long ago.
At its height, however, the civilization of the Indus Valley influenced an area much larger than did either Mesopotamia or Egypt. No one is sure how human settlement began in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Perhaps people who were arrived by sea from Africa settled in the south of the Indus valley.
Archaeologists have found evidence in the highlands of agriculture and domesticated sheep and goats dating to about BC. They built strong levees, or earthen walls, to keep water out of their cities. When these were not enough, they constructed human-made islands to raise the cities above possible floodwaters.
Archaeologists have found the ruins of more than settlements along the Indus and its tributaries mostly in modern-day Pakistan.
One of the most remarkable achievements of the Indus Valley people was their sophisticated city planning. The cities of the early Mesopotamians were a jumble of buildings connected by a maze of winding streets. In contrast, the people of the Indus laid out their cities on a precise grid system. Cities featured a fortified area called a citadel, which contained the major buildings of the city.
Buildings were constructed of oven baked bricks cut in standard sizes, unlike the simpler, irregular, sun-dried mud bricks of the Mesopotamians.
Early engineers also created sophisticated plumbing and sewage systems. These systems could rival any urban drainage systems built before the 19th century. So far as the origin of the word Indus is concerned, Scholars are of the opinion that the name "Indus" is the origin of the word "Hindu.
The ancient Iranians had difficulty in pronouncing an initial sibilant "s" and changed it to an aspirate sound "h", hence, "H-indu" instead of "S-indhu. I t is believed that the Indus Valley 1 Civilization belonged to the copper Stone Age as the presence of iron tools and implements has not yet been established at any part of this civilization The Indus civilization is best known through the excavation of Moen-Jo-Daro which literally means "The mound of the dead," which is located in Sind, about 40 kilometres from Larkana town, and another almost due north of Hyderabad city about kilometres Gray, A similar and larger ruin, Harappa, is located some kilometres northeast of Moen-Jo-Daro in Punjab province, and in this general area between Moen-Jo-Daro and Harappa there are numerous mounds indicating other cities of same Indus civilization, and in addition there are mounds of an even earlier and distinct Amri Culture.
The third site Lothal dockyard of the Indus Valley Civilization was discovered some 60 years ago, located about 7kms away from the Ahmedabad-Bhavnagar highway, India Agarwal, The lower levels probably go back much further, but high groundwater has prevented effective excavation into these earlier cities Kenoyer, The mounds above the ruins average 2 to 3 meters in height with maximum of 7 m and cover an area of about one kilometre Gray,but floods and erosion by Indus river have probably greatly reduced the original extend of the ruins Figure 2.
Geographically, the civilization was covered an area of one million square kilometres Sharma,bounded by great Himalayas in the North, Arabian Sea in the South, Rajasthan desert in the East and rugged hills and plateaus of Balochistan in the West. The remains of the Harappan settlements are located in a vast desert region of Cholistan, Thar, Nara, and Kharan deserts in the lower Indus basin.
The Indus civilization sites have arid continental climate precipitation less than mm with hot long summers and short winters Hasan and Khan, Some of the sites like lothal and Sutkanjen Dor have marine climate and under the influenceof the Indian ocean Figure According to the first theory the climate has been changed.
It used to be wet, rainy and severe. There were a lot of floods as well especially during snowmelt in March. These floods resulted in the change of the river course. The agricultural growth mainly depended on the rains. Moen-Jo-Daro was destroyed nine times by the heavy floods.
The second theory says that the weather was hot and dry and in support of this argument they say that the baked bricks were only used for construction purposes on the riverbanks and not used in Baluch areas away from the river Admin, The work is based on the personal visits of the sites and literature.
Some of the information regarding the Indus Valley Civilization have been collected from the field, whereas most of the historical information from the work of the previous workers.
The work explains historical background, town planning, culture, drainage, sanitation, toilets, baths, water reservoirs, and dockyards of the Indus Valley Civilization.
They excavated it further to discover systematic housing colonies built by mud of the Mehargarh people.
Further excavation leaded to discovery of their amazing irrigation and drainage system. Unearthed ornaments, plates and dishes, drinking glasses, tools made up stones, painted bowls and jars further established the facts about their prosperity and development Kenoyer, Anthropologists believe that these centres of Indus Valley Civilization were epitome of development and one of the finest examples of flourishing trade and agriculture based economy.
The people of Indus Valley Civilization made the clever and resourceful use of rivers present in their area surrounding them.
The granaries are also intelligently constructed, with strategic air ducts and platforms Figure 2.Michael Witzel Feb. 17, k The Languages of Harappa § 1. The riddle of the Indus script and language Each year, or as it seems, by now every other month, we see a new decipherment of the Indus.
Ruins of Mohenjo Daro - The Indus River Valley civilization, which built the city of Mohenjo Daro, arose in what is now Pakistan about years ago. Mohenjo Daro and its sister city, Harappa, each had some residents at their peak in B.
Understanding Non-Western Cultures in Asia, Africa, India, Latin America, and the Middle East. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion; its followers, known as Hindus, number about billion, or % of the global torosgazete.com form the majority of the population in India, Nepal and Mauritius.
Friday, March 09, #PressforProgress. International Women’s Day (IWD) at Citi is being celebrated all week. For us, it is a time to reflect on how we can work better together as an organization that spans 98 countries with more than , employees.
The economies of the early civilizations of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were based primarily on _____. was asked by Shelly Notetaker on May 31 students have viewed the answer on StudySoup. View the answer on StudySoup.