Health services administration Summary Inthe National Heart Foundation of Australia published a position statement on psychosocial risk factors and coronary heart disease CHD. This consensus statement provides an updated review of the literature on psychosocial stressors, including chronic stressors in particular, work stressacute individual stressors and acute population stressors, to guide health professionals based on current evidence.
CLA has two double bonds, one in the cis configuration and one in trans, which makes it simultaneously a cis- and a trans-fatty acid. These partially hydrogenated fats have displaced natural solid fats and liquid oils in many areas, the most notable ones being in the fast food, snack foodfried food, and baked goods industries.
Hydrogenation increases product shelf life and decreases refrigeration requirements. Many baked foods require semi-solid fats to suspend solids at room temperature; partially hydrogenated oils have the right consistency to replace animal fats such as butter and lard at lower cost.
They are also an inexpensive alternative to other semi-solid oils such as palm oil. By far the largest amount of trans fat consumed today is created by the processed food industry as a side effect of partially catalytic hydrogenation of unsaturated plant fats generally vegetable oils with cis carbon-carbon double bonds.
It has been established that trans fats in human breast milk fluctuate with maternal consumption of trans fat, and that the amount of trans fats in the bloodstream of breastfed infants fluctuates with the amounts found in their milk.
In the early 21st century, non-hydrogenated vegetable oils that have lifespans exceeding that of the frying shortenings became available.
Their recommendations are based on two key facts. First, "trans fatty acids are not essential and provide no known benefit to human health",  whether of animal or plant origin.
The NAS is concerned "that dietary trans fatty acids are more deleterious with respect to coronary artery disease than saturated fatty acids". There is no adequate level, recommended daily amount or tolerable upper limit for trans fats. This is because any incremental increase in trans fat intake increases the risk of coronary artery disease.
This is because trans fat is naturally present in many animal foods in trace quantities, and thus its removal from ordinary diets might introduce undesirable side effects and nutritional imbalances if proper nutritional planning is not undertaken.
The NAS has, thus, "recommended that trans fatty acid consumption be as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet". Although CLA is known for its anticancer properties, researchers have also found that the cis-9, trans form of CLA can reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease and help fight inflammation.
The exact biochemical process by which trans fats produce specific health problems are a topic of continuing research. One theory is that the human lipase enzyme works only on the cis configuration and cannot metabolize a trans fat although this theory has been overturned by the recognition that trans fat is metabolized but competitively inhibits the metabolism of other fatty acids.
They may impair the metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids LCPUFAs but maternal pregnancy trans fatty acid intake has been inversely associated with LCPUFAs levels in infants at birth thought to underlie the positive association between breastfeeding and intelligence.
A diet high in trans fats can contribute to obesity, high blood pressure, and higher risk for heart disease[ citation needed ]. Trans fat has also been implicated in the development of Type 2 diabetes. The first considers ratios of two types of cholesterolthe other the amount of a cell-signalling cytokine called C-reactive protein.
The ratio test is more accepted, while the cytokine test may be more powerful but is still being studied. Trans fat behaves like saturated fat by raising the level of LDL, but, unlike saturated fat, it has the additional effect of decreasing levels of HDL.
In general, there is much less scientific consensus asserting that eating trans fat specifically increases the risk of other chronic health problems: A study published in Archives of Neurology in February suggested that the intake of both trans fats and saturated fats promote the development of Alzheimer disease,  although not confirmed in an animal model.
Inflammation in and around the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for learning and memory. There is no scientific consensus that consuming trans fats significantly increases cancer risks across the board.
There is a growing concern that the risk of type 2 diabetes increases with trans fat consumption.This review will focus on the role of sleep duration, in particular short sleep duration, as a risk factor for development of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetus mellitus.
To set the stage, we summarized current insights in the epidemiology for these relationships, and updated the possible pathophysiology in the association of. Literature Review On Coronary Heart Disease.
fatalities from coronary heart disease (CHD) in Australia has steadily declined, however it remains one of the leading causes of all deaths and the number one cause of cardiovascular deaths among Australian population (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], ). Coronary heart disease refers to the conditions that affect the blood.
] Intake of dietary trans fat perturbs the body's ability to metabolize essential fatty acids (EFAs, including Omega-3) leading to changes in the phospholipid fatty acid composition in the aorta, the main artery of the heart, thereby raising risk of coronary artery disease.
coronary heart disease knowledge and risk factors among filipino-americans connected to primary care services. a dissertation submitted to the graduate division of the. Objectives: To summarize the current state of cardiovascular disease risk modeling literature with a focus on the U.S.
patient population, and to describe evidence on which models best predict cardiovascular risk among patients with diabetes. This essay will critically analyse the literature pertaining to the one of the most relevant health risks of CHD, that of chronic heart failure.
The literature to be reviewed will .