However the differences between the two men are perhaps as compelling as their similarities. Beyond such differences however, both novels have a tendency to collapse the distinctions between public and private worlds. Both share a sharp wit.
Towers of Great Zimbabwe. Proto-Shona-speaking societies first emerged in the middle Limpopo valley in the 9th century before moving on to the Zimbabwean highlands. The Zimbabwean plateau eventually became the centre of subsequent Shona states, beginning around the 10th century.
Around the early 10th century, trade developed with Arab merchants on the Indian Ocean coast, helping to develop the Kingdom of Mapungubwe in the 11th century.
This was the precursor to the more impressive Shona civilisations that would dominate the region during the 13th to 15th centuries, evidenced by ruins at Great Zimbabwenear Masvingoand other smaller sites. The main archaeological site uses a unique dry stone architecture. The Kingdom of Mapungubwe was the first in a series of sophisticated trade states developed in Zimbabwe by the time of the first European explorers from Portugal.
They traded in gold, ivory, and copper for cloth and glass.
This Shona state ruled much of the area that is known as Zimbabwe today, and parts of central Mozambique. It is known by many names including the Mutapa Empirealso known as Mwene Mutapa or Monomotapa as well as "Munhumutapa", and was renowned for its strategic trade routes with the Arabs and Portugal.
The Portuguese sought to monopolise this influence and began a series of wars which left the empire in near collapse in the early 17th century. Relying on centuries of military, political and religious development, the Rozwi meaning "destroyers" expelled the Portuguese from the Zimbabwean plateau by force of arms.
They continued the stone building traditions of the Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe kingdoms while adding muskets to their arsenal and recruiting a professional army to defend recent conquests. The Ndebele fought their way northwards into the Transvaalleaving a trail of destruction in their wake and beginning an era of widespread devastation known as the Mfecane.
When Dutch trekboers converged on the Transvaal inthey drove the tribe even further northward, with the assistance of Tswana Barolong Warriors and Griqua Commandos. Bythe Rozwi Empire, along with the other smaller Shona states were conquered by the Ndebele and reduced to vassaldom.
Mzilikazi then organised his society into a military system with regimental kraalssimilar to those of Shaka, which was stable enough to repel further Boer incursions.
Mzilikazi died in and, following a violent power struggle, was succeeded by his son, Lobengula. Colonial era and Rhodesia — [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
May Learn how and when to remove this template message Matabeleland in the 19th century. InRhodes obtained a concession for mining rights from King Lobengula of the Ndebele peoples.
Rhodes additionally sought permission to negotiate similar concessions covering all territory between the Limpopo River and Lake Tanganyikathen known as "Zambesia". In " Southern Rhodesia " became the official name for the region south of the Zambezi,   which later became Zimbabwe.
The region to the north was administered separately and later termed Northern Rhodesia now Zambia.The Asian American Writers’ Workshop is now accepting applications for the Margins Fellowship.
PLEASE NOTE THAT WE HAVE EXTENDED THE DEADLINE TO WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19, at PM. Link to College of Arts and Letters Programs Anthropology. Undergraduate Courses/link to graduate courses Cultural Difference in a Globalized Society (ANT ) 3 credits Writing Across Curriculum (Gordon Rule). Rohinton Mistry was born in Bombay (now Mumbai), India in something of a literary capital within South Asian diasporic writing today - has inevitably led to comparisons with Salman Rushdie, another Bombay born author now based abroad.
as though to resume full speed.
The train’s brief deception jolted its riders. The bulge of. Initially drawing together the two novels, Maps and Londonstani—in many ways an unequal levelling, as I shall later comment—I explore the dual trajectories Bryan Cheyette describes in my first epigraph, as well as the ways in which we can productively nuance our approach to new South-Asian diaspora writing.
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