Muslim conquestsRashidun Caliphateand Umayyad Caliphate Within the century of the establishment of Islam upon the Arabian peninsula and the subsequent rapid expansion of the Arab Empire during the Muslim conquestsone of the most significant empires in world history was formed. The objective of the conquests was mostly of a practical nature, as fertile land and water were scarce in the Arabian peninsula.
History[ edit ] The Muslim population in Europe is extremely diverse with varied histories and origins. The communities consist Spread of islam in europe of indigenous Europeans of the Muslim faith whose religious tradition dates back several hundred years.
The transcontinental countries of TurkeyAzerbaijan and Kazakhstan also are Muslim majority. Moors, Al-Andalus and Sicily[ edit ] The Moors request permission from James I of AragonSpain, 13th century Muslim forays into Europe began shortly after the religion's inception, with a short-lived invasion of Byzantine Sicily by a small Arab and Berber force that landed in Islam gained its first genuine foothold in continental Europe from onward, with the Umayyad conquest of Hispania.
The Arabs renamed the land Al-Andaluswhich expanded to include the larger parts of what is now Portugal and Spain except for the northern highlands. It is estimated that Al-Andalus had a Muslim majority by the 10th century after most of the local population willingly converted to Islam.
The Christian counter-offensive known as the Reconquista began in the early 8th century, when Muslim forces managed to temporarily push into southern France. Slowly, the Christian forces began a re-conquest of the fractured Taifa kingdoms of Al-Andalus. There was still a Muslim presence north of Spain, especially in Fraxinet all the way into Switzerland until the 10th century.
The Emirate of Sicily was established in Arabs held onto southern Italy until their expulsion by the Normans in Bypractically all that remained of Muslim Spain was the southern province of Granada. The Arabs imposed Shariathus, the Latin- and Greek-speaking Christian communities, as well as a community of Jews, had limited freedom of religion under the Muslims as dhimmi non-Muslims.
They were required to pay jizya poll taxkharaj land taxbut exempt from the Muslim tax of zakaat. These taxes marked their status as subject to Muslim rule, albeit in exchange for protection against foreign and internal aggression.
Cultural impact and interaction[ edit ] "Araz" coat of arms of Polish Tatar nobility. Tatar coats of arms often included motifs related to Islam.
Arabic-speaking Christian scholars saved influential pre-Christian texts and introduced aspects of medieval Islamic culture    including the arts   economics science and technology. Muslim rule endured in the Emirate of Granadafrom as a vassal state of the Christian Kingdom of Castileuntil the completion of La Reconquista in Throughout the 16th to 19th centuries, the Barbary States sent pirates to raid nearby parts of Europe in order to capture Christian slaves to sell at slave markets in the Arab World throughout the Renaissance period.
These slaves were captured mainly from the crews of captured vessels  and from coastal villages in Spain and Portugaland from farther places like ItalyFrance or Englandthe NetherlandsIrelandthe Azores Islandsand even Iceland.
At that time this settlement entirely populated by Muslims was probably one of the biggest settlements of the Kingdom. This and several other Muslim settlements were all destroyed and their inhabitants massacred during the Mongol invasion of Hungary.
During his journey to Volga Bulgaria inIbn Fadlan observed the Rus', claiming that some had converted to Islam. After the Mongol empire split, the eastern European section became known as the Golden Horde.The spread of Islam in Africa began in the 7th to 9th century, brought to North Africa initially under the Umayyad Dynasty.
Extensive trade networks throughout North and West Africa created a medium through which Islam spread peacefully, initially through the merchant class.
The early spread of Islam was directly linked to the revelations and work of the Prophet Muhammad who preached religious and moral reform throughout Arabia between and c.e.
Source for information on The Spread of Islam and its Relationship to Medieval Europe: Arts .
Section 1 Back to our lesson question, scholars. It's at the top of the screen. What was the impact of the spread of Islam? Well, we just saw how quite rapidly Islam spread through North Africa, into Spain, and into Portugal, into Europe as we know it, .
B) Islam first developed in Europe and then spread inland through Africa. C) Islam had its origins in Constantinople before spreading to Arabia. D) Islamic armies conquered major cities to help spread Islam on three continents/5(13).
Spread of Islam Andrew Lowery HIS /CA September18, Kerrin Conroy Spread of Islam Islam is not only one of the three major monotheistic religions in the world today, it is also it is the fastest growing.
Additionally, political conflict between Islamic groups and the West play out on the international stage like the latest of the Crusades. Islam spread in different parts of world by different methods. You are right to point out that speard in Europe was largely because of good governance, spread of knowledge and development in science.